Maeve O'Leary Sloan, PsyD, is a 2023 graduate of the PsyD Program in Clinical Psychology at Antioch University, Seattle.

Dissertation Committee

Michael J. Toohey, PhD, ABPP, Committee Chair

Michelle Peavy, PhD, MAC, SUDP, Committee Member

Melissa Kennedy, PhD, Committee Member


grounded theory, constructivist grounded theory, qualitative, primary care providers, youth with OUD, youth with opioid use disorder, youth, youth in primary care, primary care, outpatient medical clinics, office-based treatment, medications for opioid use disorder, opioid use disorder, OUD, MOUD, buprenorphine, suboxone, sublocade, access to MOUDs

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This study utilized Primary Care Provider (PCP) perspectives to unveil major barriers to prescribing buprenorphine to youth (ages 16-25) with opioid use disorder (OUD). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven PCPs recruited through convenience and snowball sampling. Interviews were conducted and recorded via Zoom video conferencing. Transcripts were generated and analyzed for themes using a Constructivist Grounded Theory (CGT) approach. The CGT of the present study describes four major barriers that limit PCP prescription of buprenorphine to youth: 1) PCPs Feel Overwhelmed, 2) PCPs Feel Ill Equipped to Treat Youth Patients with OUD, 3) PCPs Hold and Observe Stigma toward Patients with OUD—Especially Youth, and 4) Structural and Systemic Barriers. Each major barrier consists of related subcategories and sub-subcategories. Findings offer stakeholders suggestions for targeting individual, relational, clinical, and systemic level changes to increase primary care access to buprenorphine for youth ages 16-25.


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Maeve O'Leary Sloan, PsyD, 2023

ORCID Scholar ID# 0009-0003-8745-2383