Frederick Wang, PsyD, is a 2023 graduate of the PsyD Program in Clinical Psychology at Antioch University, Seattle.

Dissertation Committee

Michael Toohey, PhD, Committee Chair

Michael Sakuma, PhD, Committee Member

Brad Lichtenstein, ND, Committee Member


music, rhythm, tempo, harmony, music preference, stress, measurement, biofeedback, psychophysiology, psycho-physiology, heart rate variability, HRV, EMG, electromyography, skin conductance, SCL, galvanic skin response, GSR, electrodermal activity, EDA, research design

Document Type


Publication Date



Music’s ability to influence emotional states and physical arousal has become an increasingly popular area of study. The wealth of literature around music and stress suggests a significant amount of interest in leveraging music to manage stress. However, as attention increases, the robustness of research becomes an increasing concern. This study investigates the current literature and proposes recommendations for the future studying of the psychological and physiological impacts of music as it relates to stress reduction. Existing literature was reviewed with a focus on the operationalization of key concepts of music and stress. The analysis showed considerable discrepancies in research design, operationalization of music, operationalization of the psychological aspects of stress, and operationalization of the physiological aspects of stress. The findings of this study have implications for future research design. This dissertation is available in open access at AURA ( and OhioLINK ETD Center (


Frederick Wang, PsyD, 2023

ORCID Scholar ID# 0009-0009-6794-2717