Ashley Turner, PsyD, is a 2023 graduate of the PsyD Program in Clinical Psychology at Antioch University, Seattle.

Dissertation Committee

William Heusler, PsyD, Committee Chair

Michael Sakuma, PhD, Committee Member

Chalon Ervin, PsyD, Committee Member


Black women, intersectionality, police brutality, interpretative phenomenological analysis

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Publication Date



This phenomenological study explored Black women’s lived experiences with racial trauma stemming from direct and indirect encounters with police brutality. A total of nine participants living in Washington state participated in this study. They identified as Black, ciswomen, fluent in English, and at least 21-years-old. In-depth, semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted to explore participants’ experiences with police. Transcripts were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The results consisted of the following five themes: (a) forms of police encounters, (b) influence of identity, (c) perceived reason for police brutality, (d) emotions stemming from police brutality, and (e) tactics to survive police interactions. These findings have the potential to garner support in dismantling oppressive systems that lead to Black women’s vulnerability and invisibility and reform policies that disproportionately impact Black women. This dissertation is available in open access at AURA,, and OhioLINK ETD Center,


Ashley Turner, PsyD, 2023

ORCID Scholar ID# 0009-0006-5886-1104