Alex Fox, Psy.D., is a 2022 graduate of the Psy.D. Program in Clinical Psychology at Antioch University, New England

Dissertation Committee:

  • Roger Peterson, PhD, Committee Chair
  • Susan Hawes, PhD, Committee Member
  • Edward Porter Eagan, PsyD, Committee Member


LGBTQ+, sexual orientation, gender identity, religion, spirituality, adverse religious experiences, religious trauma

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The aim of this study is to explore the ways in which LGBTQ+ people are affected by adverse or traumatic experiences related to religion or spirituality. Many LGBTQ+ adults were reared in environments where negative, disaffirming beliefs or teachings about sexual orientation or gender identity were pervasive. This study utilized a mixed-methods approach to data collection and analysis. Participants responded to a brief online survey, the data from which was used for quantitative statistical analysis. Twelve participants were selected at random from a pool of survey volunteers and took part in in-depth interviews regarding adverse religious experiences (AREs). Results of this study suggest that AREs are prevalent for LGBTQ+ individuals who grew up in religious or spiritual environments and that they have had significant psychosocial impacts on survivors. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed, as are directions for future research.


Alex Fox

ORCID Scholar ID# 0000-0002-2133-198X