La'Shelle Jefferson-McDonald, Ph.D. is a 2022 graduate of the PHD Program in Leadership and Change at Antioch University.
La'Shelle Jefferson-McDonald at her Dissertation Defense.
From L-R: Dr. Denise Huggins (not pictured), Committee Member, Dr. Lize Booysen, Committee Chair, Dr. Carol Baron, Committee Member.
- Lize Booysen, DBL, Committee Chair
- Carol Baron, Ph.D., Committee Member
- Denise Huggins, Ph.D., Committee Member
police brutality, compliance, stereotypes, de-escalation, adaptive leadership, differential association theory, White supremacy
Widespread availability of cell phones has given most Americans the ability to record events as they happen. This has included recordings of increasing instances of police brutality directed at African Americans by White officers, including the shooting and killing of unarmed People of Color, particularly males. With such encounters being recorded and widely viewed by the general population, there is an increased need to focus on stopping this serious social problem. This study gives historical context on how this came about, what common stereotypes are associated with African Americans, and examples of several cases where unarmed African Americans were killed by White police officers. This study examines two theories which could offer possible solutions as to how society can begin to correct this social problem: first, differential association theory, “the view that people commit crime when their social learning leads them to perceive more definitions favoring crime and deviance than favoring conventional behavior” (Siegel, 2015, p. 174). The second explanatory and normative theory is adaptive leadership. To be adaptive, an individual’s behaviors must adjust specifically to each situation. Different interactions usually require a different pattern of leadership behavior (Yukl & Mahsud, 2010). African Americans need to learn to adapt their behavior during police encounters in order to defuse the situation. This study used a mixed methods methodology. The instrument for the study was an online questionnaire completed by 121 respondents. Results showed considerable promise for improving the relationship between People of Color and police officers through training for both parties using adaptive leadership and compliance as a guide. This dissertation is available in open access at AURA (https://aura.antioch.edu/) and OhioLINK ETD Center, (https://etd.ohiolink.edu).
Jefferson-McDonald, L. (2022). What Factors in the Life Experience of African Americans Cause Them to Comply with or Confront Law Enforcement Officers?. https://aura.antioch.edu/etds/891