Letitia D'Aria Unger Johnson, PhD, is a 2022 graduate of the Doctoral Program in Counselor Education & Supervision at Antioch University, Seattle.

Dissertation Committee

Colin Ward, PhD, Committee Chair

Ned Farley, PhD, Committee Member

Mariaimeé Gonzalez, PhD, Committee Member


clinical supervision, online supervision, telesupervision, COVID-19, counseling supervision, supervisory alliance, face-to-face supervision, in-person supervision, counselor education, counselor in training, pre-licensure counselor

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The purpose of this research was to examine face-to-face and online supervisee disclosure within the supervisory alliance. Just as client care pivoted to online platforms, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, so did clinical supervision, which was uncharted territory for many, including those familiar with online counseling. The methodology used was consensual qualitative research (CSR). Eight participants were recruited as a sample of convenience, and semistructured interviews were conducted via Zoom. Results indicated domains such as important characteristics of the supervisory relationship, importance of communication, supervisor characteristics related to self-disclosure, positive aspects and negative aspects of online supervision, and positive and negative aspects of face-to-face supervision. In addition, relevant categories were identified. This study is relevant for counselors in training, counselor educators, and supervisors who are engaged in and considering online and face-to-face supervision. This dissertation is available in open access at AURA ( and OhioLINK ETD Center (


Letitia D'Aria Unger Johnson, PhD, 2022

ORCID# 0000-0001-6697-9571