Michelle Byrd, PhD, is a 2022 graduate of the Doctoral Program in Counselor Education & Supervision at Antioch University, Seattle.

Dissertation Committee

Ned Farley, PhD, Committee Chair

Colin Ward, PhD, Committee Member

Jane Harmon Jacobs, PhD, Committee Member


clinical supervision, multicultural supervision, supervisee experience of clinical supervision, clinical supervision theories/models, multiculturally/culturally sensitive clinical supervision models, best practices in clinical supervision

Document Type


Publication Date



Clinical Supervision is a critical cornerstone of ethical and competent counseling. A significant element in the practice of effective supervision is the necessity for clinical supervisors to provide multiculturally competent clinical supervision. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to capture the lived experiences of pre-licensure counselors describing effective clinical supervision and how the multicultural competence of their supervisor(s) impacted their experience of effective clinical supervision. Semi-structured interviews with four participants and an interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA) were utilized. The results indicated four primary/ordinate themes. First, there are specific qualities of effective supervision. Second, it is important to supervisees that multicultural factors are considered in supervision. Third, the supervisory alliance is an important aspect of effective clinical supervision. Fourth, group supervision is essential for quality clinical supervision due in part to the diverse perspectives and collaborative power dynamic. In keeping with the phenomenological frame of IPA analysis, subordinate themes of note also emerged, indicating supervisee attention to their own clinical skill acquisition and developmental levels, rightness of fit with clinical supervisors, experiences of ineffective and sometime harmful clinical supervision, and how supervisees will exercise autonomy in seeking out effective clinical supervision. The findings provide a useful perspective for pre-licensure counselors, counselor educators and supervisors.


Michelle Byrd, PhD, 2022

ORCID Scholar ID# 0000-0003-0598-1883