Janelle Hickey, Psy.D., is a 2022 graduate of the Psy.D. Program in Clinical Psychology at Antioch University, New England

Dissertation Committee:

  • Monique Bowen, PhD, Committee Chair
  • Katherine Evarts, PsyD, Committee Member
  • Rose Hitchings, PsyD, Committee Member


probation officers, parole officers, burnout, serious and persistent mental illness

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Every year, millions of adults in the United States are ordered to participate in supervised community probation and parole (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2021). Probation and parole supervisees with serious and persistent mental illness (SPMI) are overrepresented in the criminal justice system and, therefore, probation and parole officers (PPOs) can expect to work with supervisees with mental illness. While there is extensive research on the impact of working with individuals with SPMI on community support professionals, there is little research focusing specifically on PPOs (Whitehead, 1985). The limited research that exists suggests PPOs who supervise individuals with SPMI endorse symptoms of burnout, changes in mood, and low job satisfaction (Lee et al., 2009). Renewed appreciation for the role that PPOs fulfill in our society has resulted in research focused on specific regions across the US (Gayman et al., 2017; Lewis et al., 2012; Powell & Gayman, 2020; Sawh, 2021; Ward & Merlo, 2016). While various states and counties have been represented, there are no studies that gather sample populations from the New England region. Using survey data from PPOs in Rhode Island, this exploratory study aims to examine whether the community supervision of adults with SPMI impacts PPOs’ experience of burnout. By surveying PPOs in this part of New England, this study aims to expand the existing literature and to explore in what ways the quality of relationships with supervisors and co-workers may influence burnout experienced by PPOs.


Janelle Hickey

ORCID Scholar ID# 0000-0002-6096-3381