Eric Kung, Ph.D. is a 2022 graduate of the PHD Program in Leadership and Change at Antioch University.

Eric Kung at his Dissertation Defense.

From L-R: Dr. Laurien Alexandre, Committee Chair, Dr. Elizabeth Holloway, Committee Member, Dr. Brad Jackson, Committee Member.

Dissertation Committee

  • Laurien Alexander, Ph.D., Committee Chair
  • Elizabeth Holloway, Ph.D., Committee Member
  • Brad Jackson Ph.D., Committee Member


leadership, leadership-as-practice, middle managers, organizational change, organization ethnography

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Publication Date



There has been a great need for leadership studies on middle management, particularly in the Asia Pacific context. This study explored the leadership practices of middle managers engaged in leading organizational changes of multinational corporations (MNCs), within the Asia Pacific context. Organization ethnography was used as the research method. The ethnographer observed and analyzed the actual practice of middle managers of a multinational manufacturing company located in China for six months. The findings showed that middle managers played significant roles in communication and execution in leading organizational changes. The study also showed that change management could be a dynamic process at the organizational, team, and individual levels. A leadership-as-practice model with four main practices (problem solving, continuous improvement and learning, relationship management, and communication and coordination) was constructed which seemed to be more comprehensive, and relevant to the MNC and manufacturing settings. The implications of this study were involving middle managers in strategic planning and leading organizational changes, leadership development of middle managers in leading change, and practicing leading change with sensitivity to the Asia Pacific cultural context. This dissertation is available in open access at AURA ( and OhioLINK ETD Center (


Eric Kung

ORCID Scholar ID #: #0000-0002-0553-7873

Mr. Eric Kung is the Founder, Chairman & CEO of Human Dynamic. He has been in the field of change management consultancy, executive training & development, and critical incidence management work for over 29 years. Eric founded Human Dynamic in 1993 in Hong Kong. Since then, he had led the company growth to be a leading provider of Integrated Solution for Leadership and Change in Asia Pacific with 14 direct offices across Asia Pacific serving over 100 global companies. Eric has extensive experiences in corporate consulting in leading organizational change, handling staff communication in change and crisis management, and conducting leadership training for senior executives and middle managers. Clients that he has worked with include HP, Microsoft, HSBC, Manulife, Cigna, Nestle, P&G, Nike, GE, Dow Chemical, Chevron, Freudenberg, Ubisoft, and many other global companies and government bodies. He travels widely as consultant and speaker in Greater China, Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam, the Philippines, and India. Eric graduated from McMaster University, Canada, in 1982 with an honor bachelor’s degree in commerce. In 1987, he obtained from University of Hong Kong master’s degree in social work. In 1999 he obtained his second master’s degree of Divinity from Hong Kong Baptist Seminary. Eric completed his PhD program on Leadership and Change at the Antioch University, Ohio, USA in 2022. His dissertation was on Exploring Leadership as Practice of Middle Managers Engaged in Organizational Change in Asia Pacific Multinational Setting.