Thomas C. Crawford is a 2014 graduate of the PhD Program in Leadership and Change at Antioch University.

Dr Crawford with his Dissertation Committee Members at his Dissertation Defense, Antioch University, January 2014.

[Left to Right] Dr. Laura Morgan Roberts, Committee Member, Dr. Alan Guskin, Committee Member, Dr. Thomas C. Crawford, Dr. Carolyn Kenny, Committee Chair. Not Shown [ Dr. Christine Philips, External Reader].


health care, access, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, commercial insurance, discrimination, emergency department, disparities, labyrinth, outcomes, socioeconomic status, social class, uninsured, underinsured, portraiture, phenomenology, leadership, healthcare

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In 2010, an estimated population of the 311,212,863 Americans generated approximately 1,014,688,290 physician office encounters (Moore, 2010). The frequency and number of professional interactions between caregivers and patients/family members in medical office settings equated to a staggering 1,931 visits per minute. Based on the massive volume of interactions that occurred between patients of different races, ethnicities, genders, sexual orientations, and socioeconomic standings that generated an average household income of $49,445 in 2010 (United States Census Bureau, 2010a) with a physician workforce that the Association of American Medical Colleges (2010) captured as being 75% White that earned (primary care specialties) in excess of $190,000 per year in personal income (Hyden, 2011), a paradigm for potential discrimination is created through heterogeneous customers seeking health care services from a mostly affluent homogeneous workforce. What are the experiences of the underinsured in attempting to obtain routine and emergent medical care in the United States? Based on the identified void in the current body of scholarship that leaves silent the voices of millions of underserved and socioeconomically disadvantaged patients, this dissertation will extend the muted voices and, thus, create a platform to learn through the patients' personal contexts and unique health stories. The electronic version of this Dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center,


Thomas C. Crawford, PhD, MBA, FACHE is a seasoned rural healthcare executive (President/CEO/COO) that has consistently delivered collaborative accomplishments within physician networks, hospitals, medical centers, and within an alliance framework. Exceptional proven success developing system-wide strategic initiatives that contributed to enhanced market positioning, bottom-line profitability/growth, advanced clinical and financial performance, enhanced the quality and safety of the care delivered, and improved clinician and employee morale. A passionate continuous quality improvement (CQI) leader who recognizes that an institution’s most valuable accomplishment is having the right people in the right positions; consequently, accomplishes all operational goals and strategic objectives in a team environment through the leveraging of an organization’s collective intellectual capital.