Sooyeon Lee-Garland, Ph.D., is a 2020 graduate of the PhD Program in Marriage and Family Therapy at Antioch University, New England

Dissertation Committee:

  • Kevin Lyness, PhD, Committee Chair
  • Annamaria Csizmadia, PhD, Committee Member
  • Janet Robertson, PhD, Committee Member


Asian mixed-race, Ethic-racial socialization, Gender, Multiracial challenges and resilience, Transnationalism

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This was a quantitative study which examined past and present transnational activities as predictors of multiracial identity challenges and resilience among second generation U.S. born Asian mixed-race adults. Two hundred seventeen participants completed the following three survey questionnaires: a demographic form, the Multiracial Challenge and Resilience Scale (MCRS; Salahuddin & O’Brien, 2011) and an author-adapted version of the Past and Present TS- Transnationalism Scale (Murphy & Mahalingam, 2004). This study is based on the idea of integrating critical race theory, critical mixed-race studies, and intersectionality of both participants’ and parents’ gender and ethnic/racial identity among self-identified Asian mixed-race individuals. The results showed overall significant correlations between MCRS and TS. No gender of Asian immigrant parents’ effects were found, but the Asian region ones’ parent migrated from led to differences in participants’ childhood and adulthood TS Political and Economic engagements. Participants’ gender moderated the relationship between MCRS and past/present TS. More females identify themselves as being mixed-race and showed a higher level of MCRS resilience than male participants. This study contributes to the fields of marriage and family therapy and immigrant family studies by developing insights into an understudied population: second-generation immigrants of Asian mixed-race descent.


Sooyeon Lee-Garland

ORCID Scholar ID# 0000-0002-6009-4956