Keiko Sano, Ph.D., is a 2019 graduate of the Ph.D. Program in Counselor Education and Supervision at Antioch University, Seattle. Dissertation Committee Ned Farley, Ph.D., Committee Chair Colin Ward, Ph.D., Committee Member Mariameé Gonzalez, Ph.D., Committee Member


foreign-born supervisors, cross-cultural supervision, multicultural supervision, culturally sensitive supervision theories and models, supervisors experience, supervision process, minority supervisors, constructivist grounded theory

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Learning about supervision theories/models is part of counselor educator and supervisor training; however, the number of available empirical studies exploring supervisors' use of supervision theories/models is limited. Diversity and globalization in the field of counseling and doctoral students in the counselor education and supervision program have been increased in the last two decades; however, multicultural issues in supervision literature often focus on the supervisors' multicultural competency by assuming that supervisors are white Americans and supervisees are foreign-born or from diverse background. The present study was designed to fill gaps in the current literature by focusing on foreign-born racially/ethnically diverse doctoral-level supervisors' experience in clinical supervision in order to assess the cultural sensitivity of available supervision theories/models. The present study was conducted to answer two research questions: (a) How do foreign-born supervisors use supervision theories/models with their white American-born supervisees? and (b) What do those foreign-born supervisors experience in supervision? A qualitative constructivist grounded theory methodology was utilized, and data were collected in two levels: an initial written survey to construct interview questions (N = 30) and individual semi-structured interviews (N = 12). The results suggested three significant findings in the foreign-born supervisors' use of supervision theories/models and experiences. First, foreign-born supervisors take the supervisee-centered approach regardless of their supervision theories. Second, supervision theories/models offer a framework to facilitate supervision sessions, tools to build supervisory relationships, and roles to fill cultural gaps in supervision. Third, foreign-born supervisors use their supervisees' perspectives toward themselves to evaluate the quality of the supervisor relationship, effectiveness of the supervision theories/models, and their competency as a supervisor. Implications for supervision training and development of culturally sensitive supervision theories/models, recommendations for future research, and this researcher's biases in studying foreign-born supervisors were discussed.


Keiko Sano, Ph.D., 2019

ORCID Scholar ID # 0000-0002-5745-2556