Elizabeth Manley, Psy.D., is a 2019 graduate of the Psy.D. Program in Clinical Psychology at Antioch University, New England Dissertation Committee: Roger L. Peterson, PhD, ABPP Committee Chair Gina Pasquale, PsyD, Committee Member Barbara Belcher-Timme, PsyD, Committee Member


Residential treatment, females, adolescents, gender-specific treatment

Document Type


Publication Date



With approximately 20,000 adolescent females living in residential treatment centers (RTCs) in the United States (Warner & Pottick, 2003), the need for RTCs that focus on meeting the unique developmental, psychological, and emotional needs of adolescent females is clear. Current research on the subject of adolescent females in residential treatment is largely focused on the overall efficacy of RTCs, rather than examining specific programmatic components offered to adolescent females in this treatment setting. While some research has been conducted that examines how to improve gender-specific RTCs, much of this research builds on socially constructed ideas of gender differences and often downplays the importance of race/ethnicity, class, and issues of sexual diversity that greatly impact adolescent female development (Goodkind, 2005). This study explored program demographics, issues of sexuality and development, relationship development, issues of trauma, and staffing. There were multiple hypotheses proposed before data collection. One hypothesis was that a higher number of services geared specifically toward adolescent females would be offered in gender-specific residential facilities as opposed to co-ed residential facilities. It was hypothesized that residential programs that have a higher number of staff members holding master’s and doctoral-level degrees would provide a greater number of services for residents. The null hypothesis included that there was no relationship between the number of services offered for adolescent females and the type of residential facility (co-ed or gender-specific) where they received treatment, as well as that there was no relationship between the education of staff and the number of services they provided to residents. The results of this study found no significant correlations between gender-specific residential programs and the number of services offered. Additionally, no significant correlations were found between the number of staff members holding advanced master’s and doctoral degrees and the number of services provided to residents. Last, this study provided a thorough exploration of the services being offered to residents in adolescent treatment facilities in the United States. These findings will help to inform future research on the effectiveness of programmatic details.


Elizabeth Manley,

ORCID Scholar ID# 0000-0002-3668 4411