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Mohammed Raei, Ph.D. is a 2018 graduate of the PHD Program in Leadership and Change at Antioch University.

Dr. Raei at his Dissertation Defense.

L-R: Dr. Carol Baron, Committee Member, Dr. Harriette Thurber Rasmussen, attending virtually on monitor, Committee Member, Dr. Mitchell Kusy, Committee Chair.

Dissertation Committee

  • Mitchell Kusy, Ph.D., Committee Chair
  • Carol Baron, Ph.D., Committee Member
  • Harriette Thurber Rasmussen, EdD, Committee Member


Adaptive Leadership, Adaptive Challenges, Adaptive Change, Change Theories, Second-Order Change, Leading Change, Wicked Problems, Leadership Development, Complex Adaptive Systems, Transformational Leadership, Scale Development, Mixed Methods

Document Type


Publication Date



A reliable scale to measure adaptive leadership with authority—leadership from a position of power—does not exist. This was an embedded mixed-methods study–QUAN(qual) with data collected through an online survey instrument that included the proposed scale items and an open-ended question. The quantitative part of the study, using data from 436 respondents (92.7% from Mechanical Turk, 7.3% from snowball sampling), involved the development and validation of a unidimensional scale that measures adaptive leadership with authority using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The 11-item scale had a Cronbach’s alpha value of .891 and thus displayed high reliability. In the qualitative part of the study, thematic analysis was used to analyze data from 550 respondents to confirm the presence of adaptive leadership with authority sub-constructs and identify possible adaptive leadership behaviors not included in the adaptive leadership framework. The analysis provided support for the following adaptive leadership with authority sub-constructs: Distinguish Between Adaptive and Technical Challenges; Identify the Stakeholders and Their Losses; Create the Holding Environment; Regulate the Distress to maintain focus on adaptive work; Give the Work Back; and Use of Self as a diagnostic and intervention instrument. The narrative data did not support Protecting Voices of Leadership without Authority. The combination of the narrative data and scale pointed to Give the Work Back, Use of Self, and Create the Holding Environment as the most important elements in adaptive leadership with authority. This dissertation is accompanied by a de-identified data file [xls] and the author’s MP4 video introduction. This dissertation is available in open access at AURA: Antioch University Repository and Archive, and Ohiolink ETD Center,


Mohammed Raei, Ph.D.

ORCID Scholar ID #: #0000-0001-6022-4418

Dr. Raei consulted on strategic planning, (co)facilitated a workshop on trust, facilitated several workshops on immunity to change, and several gatherings, meetings, retreats, and team buildings for a variety of clients.

Mohammed served as a board member and programming chair for the Pacific Northwest Organizational Development Network where he developed many new programs.

Prior to this, he worked in the marketing of dairy products in the Jordanian market for several years where he also led the efforts for ISO 9000 quality management certification. Additionally, he represented the dairy and food industries on several national standards committees (in Jordan). Afterward, Mohammed represented several multinational industrial goods companies in the Middle Eastern market.

He has a Masters degree in Management and Leadership from Antioch University and has a bachelor’s degree in Industrial Engineering from Northeastern University.

Raei2018_Uncoded_Quantative_Data.xlsx (236 kB)
Uncoded Quantitative Data

Raei2018_Dissertation_Intro.mp4 (10648 kB)
Video Author Introduction