Streaming Media


Holly M. King, Ph.D., is a 2017 graduate of the PhD Program in Leadership and Change in the Graduate School of Leadership and Change at Antioch University

Dr. Holly King at her Dissertation Defense with her Dissertation Committee Members:

L-R: Dr. Carol Baron, Committee Member, Dr. Holly King, Dr. Jon Wergin, Dissertation Chair, Dr. James H. McMillan, Committee Member

Dissertation Committee

  • Jon Wergin, Ph.D., Chair
  • Carol Baron, Ph.D., Committee Member
  • James H. McMillan, Ph.D., Committee Member
  • Thomas L. Good, Ph.D., External Reader

Supplemental Files accompanying this dissertation and available at the bottom of this page:

  • Author Introduction [also playing above]
  • Correlation Table : Positive Relationships
  • Correlation Table: Classroom Environment


Factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, scale development, elementary teachers, formative assessment, formative teacher assessment, professional development, student-teacher relationships, classroom environment, teacher attitudes

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Publication Date



This study developed a teacher self-assessment instrument in the form of six factors across two overarching constructs, resulting in one Positive Relationships scale with three factors; and three related, but separate, scales measuring elements of the Classroom Environment. Many teacher skills and qualities are known to contribute to effectiveness in the classroom, such as teacher self-efficacy, content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, and instructional knowledge. The inclusion of affective dimensions of teacher effectiveness can complement the prevailing focus on other measures of teacher effectiveness, through the consideration of critically important, but relatively ignored, aspects of effective teaching. This study examined teacher attitudes toward building positive relationships with students and creating an empowering classroom environment, grounded in teacher effectiveness research. A survey was taken by 403 practicing elementary teachers in the United States. The results were analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The resulting factors were compared with a four-item classroom management subscale of the Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy, 2001) to determine convergent validity, measuring similar underlying constructs; and divergent validity, measuring attitudes versus efficacy. Participant demographic variables were compared using independent sample t-tests, one-way ANOVA, and tests for metric invariance to determine if the instrument performed similarly with all groups. Findings show good model fit, reliability, and validity for the factors related to each overarching construct, and most demographic variables showed no variance in the models. Significant differences were found for the Managing Conflict factor between teachers who taught grades K–2 and teachers who taught all elementary grades. Group differences on the Student-Centered and Positive Guidance factors were found between teachers identifying as White and teachers identifying as other than White. The research study concludes by offering implications for teacher formative assessment, guidance for professional learning, implications for educational leadership, and questions for future research. This dissertation is accompanied by three supplemental files: a video of the author’s introduction (MP4) and two correlation tables showing the original 61 items considered for the two proposed scales. This dissertation is available in open access at AURA: Antioch University Repository and Archive,, and OhioLINK ETD Center,


Holly M. King, PH.D.

ORCID Scholar ID #

Holly King is the founder of Empowered Educators, delivering training, resources, and professional development to educators serving children birth through secondary grades. She is also the Director of Early Learning Services for AdvancED, a global school improvement and accreditation organization. She has directed early learning programs in private, non-profit, and school district settings over the past 17 years. She served as Adjunct Faculty in Early Childhood Education for eight years in community college settings, working with more than 1000 students. She is a certified professional coach and a certified Canfield Success Principles Trainer. Holly has delivered presentations in the field of education to hundreds of participants in regional, state, and international settings. When she isn’t teaching, coaching, and working, you can find her curled up with a good book or off on a travel adventure.

Holly holds a Master’s degree in Early Childhood Education with a Mental Health Specialization from University of Colorado at Denver, and a Master’s degree and PhD in Leadership and Change from Antioch University. Her dissertation research involved developing the Teacher Affective Attitudes Inventory for elementary teachers. More information about Holly and her coaching and professional development offerings can be found at

HKing2017_Dissertation_Intro .mp4 (4899 kB)
Author Introduction Video

HKing2017_Correlation_Table_Positive_Relationships (1).pdf (571 kB)
Correlation Table Positive Relationships

HKing2017_Correlation_Table_Classroom_Environment (1).pdf (608 kB)
Correlation Table Classroom Environment